泥人張制作

          “泥人張”的制作秘方是不為世人所知的絕招,選料一曬二攪三過濾。
            “泥人張”的作品好壞,首先要看使用的原料———泥的好壞。當時天津西郊區古河道地下一米處有一層紅色黏土(俗稱膠泥),這里的黏土粘性極強,含沙量 特別小,非常適合作為制作泥人的原料。于是,張明山就與當地的農民達成協議,每隔一段時間,就讓農民將曬干后的黏土送到張明山居住的西北角韋馱廟胡同,然 后將這些土進行一次過濾。   
            張家的老宅內有專門的制作室,院內設有一高一矮相連的兩個池子,將黏土放入高池內,注入水將土攪拌成泥漿,通過高池與矮池底部相連的一個設有鐵絲網的孔洞將泥漿擠進矮池,沙石草梗留在高池,然后再曬干、打制成坯。
            

          打坯—木棰砸制加棉絮

             打制時,將一定量的黏土放在一條青石板上,用一柄木棰反復砸制,在砸制的過程中加入棉絮,直到將成比例的棉絮全部砸制進膠泥內、外部看不到棉絮為止,將 膠泥掰開后,能看到均勻的棉絲為最好。打制成型的土坯被稱為熟土,每塊重量在5公斤左右,用油布包好后,放入制作室的地窖內保存,隨用隨取。當年最好的熟 土要保存三年才能使用,這樣制作出來的作品絕對不會開裂。
            

          制作—捏擠拉抻靠手感

            “泥人張”的作品講究 形神兼備,手上的功夫最為了得。一個作品的完成有80%要靠手上的技巧,在手指達不到的部位要用一般的工具“壓子”幫忙。所謂“壓子”,就是由黃楊木、竹 制、象牙等制成的柳葉形的工具,大一點的有3、4寸長,小一點的有2寸長短,寬度不過1、2厘米。泥人在手中捏、擠、拉、抻,手中的工具隨時配合勾、抹、 挑、搓,在行云流水之中,一個完美的作品躍然出現。
            

          加工—濃妝淡抹配顏色

            “泥人張”純土制泥人在做好后,要放在陰涼處風干,不能在陽光下曬干,一般風干30天左右,純土制的泥人就可以作為藝術品出售了。而彩塑作品在捏制完畢后,要放入窯內燒制,在燒制后再用顏料上色。

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