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          當非遺傳承人不再是終身符號

            日前,蘇州市文廣新局公布了首次市級非遺傳承人評估結果,在實際參加評估的235名市級代表性傳承人中,在泥塑技藝、中醫兒科、舞龍燈、花線制作技藝等項目中有9名傳承人評估不合格。這是蘇州繼對非遺項目代表性傳承人建立“定編”、“換血”機制后進行的第一次評估結果公示。而對于這項舉措,有人拍手叫好,認為該舉措在一定程度上緩解了“頭銜熱”、“大師熱”的亂象。有人卻表示并不看好,認為這樣一刀切的評估標準并不適用于所有類別的非遺傳承人,違背了對非物質文化遺產十六字方針中保護為主的初衷。那么,建立退出機制能否更好地保護非遺?又能否從根本上幫助非遺傳承人突破后繼乏人的瓶頸?

            蘇州首次公布傳承人考評結果

            其實早在2011年頒布《中華人民共和國非物質文化遺產法》中第三十一條就明確指出:非物質文化遺產代表性項目的代表性傳承人無正當理由不履行相關規定義務,文化主管部門可以取消其代表性傳承人資格,重新認定該項目的代表性傳承人;喪失傳承能力的,文化主管部門可以重新認定該項目的代表性傳承人。《非遺法》頒布后的六年時間中各地雖然先后出臺過相應政策,但并沒有取消過非遺傳承人的資格。直到3月蘇州市文廣新局首次公布非遺傳承人評估結果才重又引起業內對于取消非遺傳承人終身制這一話題的關注。此次對非遺傳承人評估的內容包括傳承人從事非遺項目生產、表演等實踐活動情況,開展后繼人才培養情況,以及參與或自行開展公益性傳播活動情況等。經過評估后,參加評估的235位市級代表性傳承人中有226名合格,9人不合格。

            江蘇省蘇州市財政局、市文廣新局印發《蘇州市非物質文化遺產項目代表性傳承人認定與管理辦法(修訂稿)》(以下簡稱《辦法》)。該辦法規定非遺項目代表性傳承人建立“定邊”和“換血”制度。蘇州市非遺辦每兩年組織專家進行一次資質與傳承能力及傳承績效考評工作,兩次考評不合格者將被取消代表性非遺傳承人的資格。

            據蘇州市非遺辦副主任王燕介紹,首次考評不合格的9名傳承人不合格原因大致分為三類,一是傳承人自身意識不強,履行義務不力;二是部分傳承保護責任單位未能充分為代表性傳承人提供傳承條件,導致傳承人不能獨立履行傳承義務;三是部分項目瀕危情況嚴重,后繼乏人,傳承工作無法開展。

            對此,北京市東城區非物質文化遺產保護中心辦公室主任楊建業表示,自《非遺法》出臺后,各省市結合自身情況對非遺傳承人的管理規定進行了相應的調整。尤其對于非遺代表性傳承人來說,他們有責任和義務在保證自身手工藝傳承的同時進行社會展示。

            而國家級非遺傳承人“朱府銅藝”第五代傳承人朱軍岷卻認為,此次的非遺代表性傳承人評估無論是考核標準還是考核范圍都沒有向社會公示。既然曾經評定為代表性傳承人,現在又評定為不合格,不禁讓公眾對非遺代表性傳承人評估的嚴謹性產生質疑。

            取消“終身制”不應一刀切

            如今,在工業化高速復制和機械化大規模生產的時代下,非遺技藝正面臨著巨大的沖擊和考驗,很多非遺項目難以發展生存,并面臨著青黃不接、后繼乏人的傳承窘境。很多傳承人表示,傳承尚難,談何發展。瀕危的非遺項目,很可能一旦脫離了政府的幫扶和保護會消失得更快。但從另一方面看,個別非遺項目和非遺傳承人確實存在入選后就認為萬事大吉,從此非遺這個名頭成為了某些地方和個人招商引資的工具,成為商業投機的幌子,并沒有為發揚、保存非遺項目本身起到真正作用。久而久之,使得非遺項目名存實亡。面對良莠不齊的非遺傳承人,取消“終身制”和現有的評估標準能否為非遺技藝的傳承和發展保駕護航呢?

            在楊建業看來,此次蘇州的這一舉措是一次不錯的嘗試。他表示,一項非遺項目內有許多從業者,雖然并不在冊,但對該非遺項目起到了傳承的作用,可統稱為傳承人。但評定出的代表性傳承人作為該非遺項目的代表,本身就應該具有示范作用,如果不能夠起到帶頭展示和宣傳的作用是應該被取消資格的,這是出于對非遺技藝能夠正常展示和發展的保護。但非遺代表人取消資格后,依然能夠從事該項非遺技藝的工作,只是不再是代表性傳承人。

            文化部門還應對非物質文化遺產保護法設立的主要制度加以細化,對保護“非遺”項目要形成管理制度和切實可行的操作措施,對于非遺傳承人取消“終身制”的做法,朱軍岷提出了不同的觀點,在他看來,非遺傳承人只是一個標簽,談不上太大的榮譽。非遺代表性傳承人在評定時本來就有一定的標準,且審查機制已經比較完善,所以既然已經通過了非遺傳承人的公開認定,就應該獲得這樣的稱號,并一直享有這一稱號。

            除此之外,對于不同的非遺項目和非遺傳承人的評估標準不應采取一刀切的模式,燙蠟技藝非遺傳承人于鴻雁也表示,一些無法進行項目創造的非遺技藝最終會走向博物館,這是社會發展進程中的正常現象,就像很多古代的技藝逐漸被淘汰而沒有流傳下來一樣。對于非遺技藝和非遺傳承人來說,應該更多地去弘揚發展先進而不是淘汰落后,對于那些沒有條件進行展示傳承功能的傳承人,更應給予相應的支持。

            非遺還需自造血

            相信無論是政府出臺的《非遺法》還是各地方文化部門出臺的非遺管理辦法,抑或此次非遺傳承人取消“終身制”的做法,都是希望通過規范的管理最大程度對非遺技藝進行保護、發展。但隨著社會的變遷,非遺逐漸喪失“用武之地”,高昂的成本和有限的變現能力都讓非遺面臨著尷尬的局面,也正因如此非遺傳承人才出現斷層早已是公開的現實,非遺技藝該如何傳承也成為最大的難題。

            一直以來非遺的保護、傳承和管理都離不開政府的扶持,楊建業表示,一直以來,政府通過財政補貼給予非遺代表性傳承人資金上的支持,這項補貼也在不斷完善和細化。近年來,雖然對于非遺技藝已經展開了搶救式的保護,但對于非遺傳承人的管理制度始終比較缺失,非遺傳承人也是一種職業,只有科學規范的管理才能完善非遺的發展。

            除了政府的扶持外,非遺的保護和傳承的發展還需要傳承人探索出一條適合自身項目發展的道路。新時代下非遺項目的發展呈現出幾家歡喜幾家愁的現狀,非遺中的部分項目終究難逃消亡的命運,但也有一些非遺項目做得風生水起。對此,朱軍岷表示,從源頭上講,非遺不過是一門養家糊口的技藝,但它最終能夠流傳下來也在一定程度上證明了這項技藝是當時先進生產力和優秀品牌的代表。隨著時間的推移和社會的發展,一些非遺項目的市場占有率在逐漸縮小,因此非遺還是要重回起點,選擇能夠讓百姓進行消費的方式發展。這就要求非遺傳承者要根據項目的不同進行品牌化、市場化、商業化建設。除此之外,如今的新生代非遺傳承人往往又非常迷茫,他們中的很多人都不愿意再子承父業,繼續傳承此項非遺技藝。相信最根本的原因就是這項非遺技藝不被現今的市場和社會認可,傳承人難以通過祖輩傳下來的非遺技藝獲得有尊嚴的收入,自然就會出現后繼乏人的現象。

            對于非遺來講,取消非遺傳承人終身制和所有的“保護”都不是目的,這些都只是手段,推向市場,取得經濟效益和社會效益的雙贏才是目標。就像一個人打點滴,需要輸血維持生命,這種生命狀態是沒有質量的,只是救急、救命。最終需要的是一個自身造血功能良好的健康的人。

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