“非遺+扶貧”亟需復合型人才

          ——

          經相關調查研究,非遺中的傳統手工藝在現代社會中往往具有帶動當地群眾就近就業、居家就業的優勢。換言之,類似的非遺項目大多分布在婦孺留守村寨的貧困地區,當地百姓空有珍貴的手工技藝,卻難以依靠自己的力量將其轉化成為物質財富。日前,文化和旅游部連續出臺有關文件,針對上述問題,選取了10個經濟發展落后的地區,作為第一批“非遺+扶貧”試點,大力推進非遺扶貧工作。

          事實上,“非遺+扶貧”的概念已出現多時,除了有力的政府行為,還有很多孜孜不倦的民間行為,兩者間有差異也有交集。北京聯合大學工藝美術系教師、中國藝術研究院非物質文化遺產保護研究方向的博士楊慧子在大量的田野調查中見證了豐富的民間非遺扶貧案例,對此感受頗深。

          沒有“文化”的人做有“文化”的事

          田野調查讓楊慧子對這些需要落實非遺扶貧的地區有了越來越多“接地氣”的了解,曾在貴州黔東南苗族侗族自治州丹寨縣走訪時聽到當地掌握蠟染技藝的畫娘說過一句話,她至今還記得:“他們跟我說,他們這群沒有‘文化’的人在做著有‘文化’的事情。我覺得很有意思,也很有深意。”

          黔東南的丹寨蠟染是國家級非遺項目,當地苗族婦女制作的蠟染制品,大多取材于大自然中的元素和民族圖騰,極富想象力和傳統文化魅力,廣泛用于壁掛、窗簾、桌布、背包、服飾等。但在大約十年前,制作蠟染制品還只是當地農婦日常里再尋常不過的行為,少有人將其作為藝術品來進行售賣,更鮮有成系統的平臺或機構將這些畫娘和染娘(對從事蠟染工作的婦女的稱呼)組織起來。那時,當地人對自己掌握著的手工技藝并未作太多有關非遺這一概念的思考,對于所謂的“非遺傳承”亦缺乏概念,這樣的形勢對手藝人的生存環境和丹寨蠟染本身都是一種遺憾。2009年,以“公司+基地+農戶”為運作模式的丹寨寧航蠟染有限公司(以下簡稱為“寧航蠟染”)成立,致力于丹寨蠟染的挖掘、傳承與開發,將苗族等少數民族蠟染飾品的設計、制作、加工、銷售等過程及其中涉及到的手藝人整合起來,為當地農婦提供了百余個就業崗位,這些留守在農村的畫娘和染娘們從此也成為有了穩定收入的“上班族”。

          楊慧子曾在2016年到丹寨做田野調查,她回憶道,當地縣城每隔6天會有一次大集,當地人稱“趕場天”,那些至今仍延續手工紡紗織布、點蠟、畫蠟再到浸染、晾曬的傳統手藝人就會趁此機會,坐2個小時左右的大巴,從村里來到位于縣城的寧航蠟染領取工作任務并帶回家去做,等到下一次趕集的時候再把成品交回并領取新的任務,如此循環往復。如果沒有時間前往,她們也會委托去縣城趕集的鄉鄰代為交付和領取。寧航蠟染作為一個傳承和銷售的平臺,將這些畫娘和染娘的手工成果以計件的形式給予報酬,最終通過各種渠道銷售出去。其實,從村婦依靠趕集才能獲得相對便利的走出村寨的機會,以及所謂便利的交通其實往返也需數小時的情況可以看出,當時丹寨縣的交通不只制約著當地經濟的發展,也限制著丹寨蠟染這個項目向外界的傳播。時至今日,丹寨縣通了高速公路,其交通已經有了可觀的改善,旅游業的發展也隨之漸有起色。寧航蠟染平日里多了接待游客參觀和體驗的業務,向游客售賣的機會也逐漸增多。即便如此,今天的丹寨蠟染仍多以接熟人訂單、按需制作的方式運營,即便是占據零售和批發業半壁江山的電商,對丹寨蠟染而言,仍存在有待開拓和經營的空間。

          但無論如何,寧航蠟染在丹寨縣率先打開“非遺+扶貧”的局面,加入其中的畫娘和染娘不但有了穩定而獨立的收入,而且這筆錢往往比家里男人的收入還要多,寧航蠟染如今還被評為丹寨縣的“巾幗示范基地”。回想那句令楊慧子記憶尤深的有關“沒文化和有文化”的話語,更覺貼切,或許這些從小學習蠟染的丹寨女人并不懂得自己手中古樸的蠟染價值幾何,但她們卻在世世代代對手工技藝的傳承中詮釋了這項非遺的珍貴之處。

          從傳統手工藝到現代工藝品的實踐

          同樣是在貴州,距離丹寨縣大約200公里的惠水縣,那里的貴州盛華職業學校讓楊慧子眼前一亮。這所私立學校由當地政府予以政策支持,民間企業家集資開辦,實則是已經實現良性循環的非遺扶貧思路。據楊慧子介紹,盛華職業學校中有一部分專業的設立是專門針對當地傳統手工藝的,優先招收家境貧寒的少數民族孩子(其中多為心靈手巧的女孩),學校會給予來自特困家庭的學生學費全免的優惠政策,甚至會視情況發放一定數額的助學金。貴州盛華職業學校也是一所國際化學校,會有外籍人士專門至此應聘語言老師;它同時還是一個“全科”學校,學生在此有機會把祖祖輩輩傳承下來的各類工藝進一步鞏固,使之真正成為改變他們人生軌跡的技藝。更可貴的是,學校聘請了大量手藝精湛的手工藝人任教。楊慧子解釋說:“有很多鄉村中的手工藝人不會說普通話,也聽不懂普通話,與村寨以外的世界難以溝通,所以他們掌握的傳統技藝不易被外人了解和認可。但這并不代表他們的手工藝達不到非遺代表性傳承人的標準。”

          盛華職業學校的投資人之一唐燕長期致力于在北京和貴州兩地間促成非遺扶貧項目的合作和落成,學校里下設的唐人坊非物質文化遺產傳承學院便是一個鮮明的案例。這個學院的學生第一年是在學校學習基本的技藝和設計課程,做一些文創產品的加工工作;其后有機會來到位于北京市通州區的唐人坊文化發展有限公司(以下簡稱為“唐人坊”)實習。畢業后則可以選擇留在唐人坊(北京或貴州)工作、繼續讀書深造或是返鄉。看得出,非遺扶貧做的是“授人以魚不如授人以漁”的事,楊慧子說:“這些貧困學生前期在盛華職業學校的學費被減免,畢業后的實習工資有幾千元。雖然這筆所得在貴州當地來說已是不低的收入,但更多地,盛華職業學校想做的還是讓學生真正掌握能夠賴以生存的技能,從根本上改善自己和家庭的生存環境。”

          盛華職業學校鼓勵“反哺”家鄉與傳統工藝的做法與很多參與非遺扶貧的企業、平臺不謀而合,前文提到的寧航蠟染利用公司的形式為當地畫娘和染娘打開了以蠟染技藝謀生的大門,北京的唐人坊更是如此。2004年唐人坊成立,創始人唐燕堅持“依靠產業養活傳統工藝”的理念,與盛華職業學校的合作初衷本是為了“助盲公益事業”,當她來到貴州惠水當地,則為當地的民族藝術之美所驚艷,而后應當地政府的建議,在盛華職業學校成立“民族文化傳承中心”,以保護和傳承貴州本土多民族文化為宗旨,堅持“專業學習和工藝品實踐制作并重”的培養模式,這才有了后面唐人坊非物質文化遺產傳承學院的事。此外,令人感動的是,很多少數民族學生很是念舊,無論在外實習或是讀書多久他們都會選擇回到家鄉,無形中,非遺“反哺”傳統手工藝以實現扶貧的功能在當地得到了一定程度的實現。

          “輸血”不如“造血”

          多年來在中國西南地區的田野調查讓楊慧子愈發認識到,非遺扶貧工作中極為重要的反哺作用并不僅仰賴于非遺項目的“輸血功能”,更在于當地傳統非遺和傳承人的“造血能力”。所謂造血,就當下非遺扶貧中涉及到的非遺項目而言,是與時俱進的創新。

          大概因為自己從事藝術設計專業,楊慧子對此感觸良多:“雖然創新或許并不一定能完全還原這些傳統工藝的樣貌,比如一些文創產品屬于半手工制作,源于非遺,但并非傳統的手工藝品。進入職業學校學習,對于當地那些心靈手巧的小姑娘們來說是重要的提升。她們自幼在傳統手工藝的氛圍中長大,這本就比外人從頭了解和學習要更快、更好,此時如果能夠得到資助,進入非遺扶貧學校學習、在文創公司實習工作,接受傳統工藝和創新設計并重的培養,就會更積極地參與非遺扶貧。”

          談及創新,楊慧子坦言,現在很多非遺扶貧工作推進困難的一大原因就是缺少能夠兼顧傳統和現代的設計師。有些做得好的,多是因為掌握了非遺技藝的“傳二代”(即非遺傳承人的子女)到專業的院校學習了與家族技藝相關的設計專業,這樣的“傳二代”在傳統的基礎之上接受現代審美的熏陶,他們的非遺作品會更有時尚感。遺憾的是,有這樣能力與機遇的人仍是少數。“我們現在特別需要既懂傳統工藝又懂現代設計的復合型設計師,他們可以給非遺扶貧帶來很大程度上的創新力量。”楊慧子強調,“如果單純用傳統工藝去做一個文創設計,成品很容易不倫不類。因為往往在這樣的設計中,非遺只是一個浮于表面的‘噱頭’,創新設計與之并沒有迸發共融的火花。人們記不住這項非遺的手工技法和圖案中的文化內涵,可能只會對其有粗淺的印象。”

          培養適合于非遺扶貧的復合型設計師是一個漫長的過程,楊慧子認為,一味強迫久居偏遠村寨的非遺傳承人們武裝起現代設計的頭腦也并不妥當,正所謂“術業有專攻”,當復合型設計師尚未到來之前,非遺扶貧工作的正確思路是促成傳統手藝人和現代設計師的有效溝通和合作,讓雙方各自的優勢在“非遺+扶貧”的概念落實中適得其所。

          楊慧子在調查走訪中透過當地民眾訴求看到的當下非遺扶貧工作的短板:一方面是場地的問題。尤其是中國西部地區的非遺扶貧工作,對于非遺傳承人來說,當下他們最渴望的不只是經濟補助,而是需要更合適的工廠、店鋪或是傳習所來進行生產。楊慧子解釋道,非遺扶貧是一個循序漸進的過程,減免稅費和房屋租金等優惠扶持政策更加現實有效,這對愿意支持非遺扶貧的傳統手工藝人來說將是一劑強心針。另一方面是專業團隊的問題。傳統與現代本就是兩個需要妥善溝通才能相互交融的方向,對于貧困地區的非遺扶貧工作來說,更是需要專業的團隊來管理,妥善操作策劃、設計、宣傳、營銷等每一個環節,量身定制產品,打通銷售渠道,將鮮為人知的非遺之美打造成鮮明的品牌進行推廣。這大概也是未來非遺扶貧工作的必由之路。

           
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