項兆倫:中國非物質文化遺產保護的理念與實踐

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          中國的非物質文化遺產保護工作是在工業化、城鎮化、全球化的背景下展開的。在經濟社會的快速變遷中,非物質文化遺產既面臨遭受沖擊、加速消失的現實威脅,也面臨承上啟下、繼往開來的歷史機遇。中國非物質文化遺產保護的當代實踐,是中華優秀傳統文化與現實生活相融合,實現創造性轉化和創新性發展的過程。近年來,中國的非物質文化遺產傳承實踐日漸活躍,傳承人群的精神風貌和非物質文化遺產的存續狀態發生了積極變化。

          非物質文化遺產是一個文化現象的整體。非物質文化遺產不只是一件件靜態的作品、物品或某種表現形式,更是可見、可參與的生活。傳統手工制瓷技藝的魅力,不僅僅在于一件件精美的作品或產品。手工藝人的精湛技藝、制作陶瓷的傳統,以及大眾對陶瓷的喜愛和欣賞,共同構成了這一優秀非物質文化遺產的整體。剪紙被列為重要的文化遺產項目,不是因為歷史上留下了很多精美的剪紙圖案,而是因為剪紙活動深深融入了中國老百姓的社會生活和情感表達,成為很多地方社區和民眾生活的一部分。

          非物質文化遺產是實踐的。生動豐富的實踐是文化傳統保持活力的基本標志。這種實踐是知識和技藝的持有者與相關群體共同參與、密切互動的。對于需要從事生產的文化傳統來說,生產實踐本身就是傳統,從事生產就是在延續傳統。生產、創新和進入市場開展得越好,受眾越多,這項遺產的實踐就越活躍,遺產本身就越富有活力。

          非物質文化遺產是不斷發展的。傳統是奔流不息的歷史長河,既源流分明,又不斷融入新的源泉,生出新的生命。傳統與再創造的密切互動,融鑄了文明的進步和文化的發展。正因為有繼承,有發展,有創造,我們今天才能領略到優秀傳統文化的多姿多彩,欣賞到人類文化多樣性之樹的日益枝繁葉茂。

          持有非物質文化遺產的相關社區、群體或個人,是認定、保護、傳承、弘揚和振興非物質文化遺產的主體。要尊重他們的主體地位,尊重他們學習掌握新知識、開展創造性實踐的權利,保障他們通過傳承實踐獲得合法收益的權利。這是非物質文化遺產保護工作的重要原則。

          基于以上認識,我們形成了非物質文化遺產保護工作的基本理念:“見人見物見生活”,意在強調文化傳統與現實生活密不可分,傳統來自生活,傳統在生活中傳承;強調文化的傳承是人民大眾的創造性實踐,是不斷融入人們智慧和經驗的生動過程。

          政府在非物質文化遺產保護方面的主要職責是,保護和培育非物質文化遺產傳承發展的文化生態,支持開展非物質文化遺產的傳承實踐,使文化遺產的保護傳承成為廣泛的社會自覺。

          當前和今后一個時期非物質文化遺產保護工作的主要任務確定為:科學保護,提高能力,弘揚價值,發展振興。切實加強認定、記錄、建檔、研究等基礎工作,著力保護傳承實踐、傳承能力和傳承環境,促進非物質文化遺產在當代生活中延續、發展和振興。

          近年來,我們開展了幾項重點工作。

          一是開展大范圍的傳承人群能力建設

          文化和旅游部與教育部、人力資源社會保障部共同實施非物質文化遺產傳承人群研修研習培訓計劃,為文化遺產的保護和傳承提供大學的學術和教學資源支持。大批傳承人進入大學和職業院校,通過參加多種形式的研修、研習和培訓,加深對優秀傳統文化的理解,提高對造型藝術和相關材料、技術的把握和運用能力。2015年以來,先后有118所院校參與該項計劃,全國各地也陸續開展本地區的培訓計劃,6萬多名傳承人因此受益。拓寬了眼界,增長了知識,激發了創意,增強了自信,是傳承人群的普遍收獲。

          二是支持各地開展傳承實踐和傳播活動

          中國政府設立了文化和自然遺產日、中國成都國際非物質文化遺產節、中國非物質文化遺產博覽會等重要活動,支持各地開展豐富的文化遺產主題活動,支持開展傳統表演藝術的演出實踐,支持開展面向青少年的普及教育。這些活動有效地提高了傳承人群的積極性和活躍度,增強了非物質文化遺產的活力。

          三是對非物質文化遺產及其文化生態環境實施整體性保護

          先后在17個省、區、市批準設立了21個國家級文化生態保護實驗區,將遺產和其得以孕育、滋養的文化生態環境一起保護。這些生態區以“遺產豐富、氛圍濃厚、特色鮮明、民眾受益”為建設目標,并與當地傳統村落保護有機結合,相得益彰。

          四是推動振興傳統工藝

          2017年,中國政府發布了《中國傳統工藝振興計劃》,提出了“使傳統工藝在現代生活中得到新的廣泛應用”的振興目標。

          實施這一計劃的著眼點放在兩個方面。一是進入現代生活、提升大眾生活品質;二是促進就業、改善從業人群生活。我們提出,振興傳統工藝要“用”字引領,讓傳統工藝產品不僅有用,還要好用;不僅具有現在的功用,還要開發新的功用。要引入設計的力量,不僅是外觀和造型的設計,還要有功能的設計;不僅要改良制作,提高品質,還要改善功能,拓展用途,適應人們品質生活的多方面需求。

          為實施傳統工藝振興計劃,我們采取了一系列措施,包括發布國家傳統工藝振興目錄,組織大范圍和多層次的傳承人群培訓,多方面提供展示和交流平臺,支持相關企業、高校、機構在傳統工藝項目比較集中的地區設立傳統工藝工作站,幫助當地提高傳統工藝發展水平。我們很高興地看到,這些工作得到了行業、傳承人群和消費者的積極響應。振興計劃的實施,不僅改變了傳統工藝的生存狀況,帶動了脫貧就業,也升華了人們對傳統工藝的認識,有傳統的品質生活正在成為新的大眾時尚。本次設計周專門設立“非物質文化遺產板塊”和“傳統工藝設計獎”,正是近年來傳統工藝振興工作成果的具體體現。

          保護傳承和創新發展傳統文化,是現代國家可持續發展的重要任務。我們愿意繼續與各方加強交流與合作,互鑒互學,擴大共識,深化實踐,為鞏固傳統友誼和拓展務實合作提供精神動力和文化支持。

          (來源:根據文化和旅游部副部長項兆倫在2018北京國際設計周北京設計論壇“設計的力量——全球化背景下傳統文化的保護傳承與創新發展”上的主旨演講整理而成)

           
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